Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas.Argon is the third most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, at 0.934% (9340 ppmv) more than twice as abundant as water vapor (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), 23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide (400 ppmv), and more than 500 times as abundant as neon (18 ppmv). Argon is the most abundant noble gas in Earth’s crust, comprising 0.00015% of the crust. Nearly all of the argon in Earth’s atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40, derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth’s crust. In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope, being the preferred argon isotope produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in supernovas.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogen was suggested by Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates; this name derives from the Greek roots νἰτρον “nitre” and to form”. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός “no life”, as it is an asphyxiant gas; his name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as other compounds.By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth’s atmosphere.Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earth’s crust.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless and odorless gas that is vital to life on Earth. This naturally occurring chemical compound is made up of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide exists in Earth’s atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm) by volume. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, in ice caps and glaciers and also in seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas.Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary source of carbon in life on Earth and its concentration in Earth’s pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian was regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. As part of the carbon cycle, plants, algae, and cyanobacteria use light energy to photosynthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen produced as a waste product.
Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and is believed to have been formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars.
Propane (/ˈpropeɪn/) is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, a gas, at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves, and residential central heating. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases (LP gases). The others include butane, propylene, butadiene, butylene, isobutylene, and mixtures thereof.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2. It is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne.This colorless gas is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is unstable in its pure form and thus is usually handled as a solution.Pure acetylene is odorless, but commercial grades usually have a marked odor due to impurities. As an alkyne, acetylene is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond. The carbon–carbon triple bond places all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond angles of 180°.
A calibration gas is a reference gas or gas mixture used as comparative standard in the calibration of analytical instruments, like gas analysers or gas detectors. Therefore, a calibration gas has to be of a precisely defined nature or composition, like zero gas or span gas, for example 500 ppm carbon monoxide in nitrogen.
To be a calibration gas, the gas must be traceable to a national or international standard. Traceability is the unbroken chain of comparisons to an acceptable international standard. The calibration gas standard establishes a known analyzer response to a certified chemical component concentration. In the calibration gas, preparation tolerance (PT) and certification/analytical accuracy (CA) are of utmost importance.
Preparation tolerance is the concentration range that includes minor component and concentration. PT is measured in range of concentration. It can also be referred to as blending tolerance. For instance, a calibration gas of 500 ppm CO balance nitrogen having PT +/- 10% contains between 450 ppm and 550 ppm. Preparation tolerance can be minimized by using latest technologies for manufacturing such gases. Preparation tolerance is decided on the basis of the manufacturer’s experience and the customer’s requirements.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. It serves many domestic and industrial purposes. In Europe, 10 percent of all industrial electricity consumption is to produce compressed air—amounting to 80 terawatt hours consumption per year. n industry, compressed air is so widely used that it is often regarded as the fourth utility, after electricity, natural gas and water. However, compressed air is more expensive than the other three utilities when evaluated on a per unit energy delivered basis.
“Gunesh” Company offers calibration gas mixtures custom-made to specific requirements, filled in Gunesh cylinder or customer-owned cylinder. We provide any composition of gas mixtures specified by the customer with concentration that ranges from less than 1 ppm to 50% vol., by employing sophisticated blending techniques.
A Tank Car
A tank car (International Union of Railways (UIC): tank wagon) is a type of railroad car (UIC: railway car) or rolling stock designed to transport liquid and gaseous commodities.